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TETRA Security Vulnerabilities: How to Protect Critical Infrastructures

TETRA Security Vulnerabilities secured by EviPass or EviCypher NFC HSM Technologies from Freemindtronic-Andorra
TETRA Security Vulnerabilities by Jacques Gascuel: This article will be updated with any new information on the topic.

TETRA Security Vulnerabilities

Tetra is a radio communication standard used by critical sectors worldwide. But it has five security flaws that could expose its encryption and authentication. How can you protect your Tetra system from hackers? Read this article TETRA Security Vulnerabilities to find out the best practices and tips.

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TETRA Security Vulnerabilities: How to Protect Critical Infrastructures from Cyberattacks

TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a radio technology that is used worldwide for critical communications and data, especially in the sectors of security, energy, transport and defense. But this technology, which has been kept secret for more than 25 years, hides serious security vulnerabilities, including a backdoor that could allow devastating cyberattacks.

What is TETRA?

TETRA is a European radio standard that was developed in the 1990s to meet the needs of professional mobile services, such as police, firefighters, emergency services, military, prison staff, etc. TETRA allows to transmit data and voice encrypted on frequencies ranging from 380 to 470 MHz, with a range of several kilometers.

TETRA is used by more than 2000 networks in more than 150 countries, according to the TETRA and Critical Communications Association (TCCA), which brings together the manufacturers, operators and users of this technology. Among the main manufacturers of TETRA radios, we find Motorola Solutions, Hytera, Airbus, Sepura and Rohill.

TETRA offers several advantages over other radio technologies, such as:

  • better sound quality
  • greater transmission capacity
  • greater security thanks to encryption
  • greater flexibility thanks to the possibility of creating communication groups
  • greater interoperability thanks to the compatibility of equipment

Source french: TETRA digital mode & F4HXZ – Blog radioamateur

What are the vulnerabilities of TETRA?

Despite its strengths, TETRA also has weaknesses, which have been revealed by a group of Dutch researchers from Radboud University Nijmegen. These researchers conducted a thorough analysis of the TETRA standard and its encryption algorithms, which were until then kept secret by the manufacturers and authorities.

The researchers discovered two types of major vulnerabilities in TETRA:

  • A backdoor in the encryption algorithm TEA1, which is used in radios sold for sensitive equipment, such as pipelines, railways, power grid, public transport or freight trains. This backdoor allows an attacker to decrypt the communications and data transmitted by these radios, and possibly to modify or block them. The backdoor exists since the creation of the algorithm TEA1, in 1998, and cannot be corrected by a simple software update. The researchers managed to extract the secret key of the backdoor by analyzing the binary code of the radios.
  • A weakness in the encryption algorithm TEA2, which is used in radios intended for professional mobile services, such as police, firefighters, emergency services, military or prison staff. This weakness allows an attacker to reduce the number of possible keys to test to decrypt the communications and data transmitted by these radios. The researchers estimated that it would take about 10 minutes to find the right key with a standard computer. This weakness was corrected by the manufacturers in 2016, but the radios that have not been updated remain vulnerable.

To find the backdoor in the TEA1 algorithm, the researchers used a technique called “differential analysis”, which consists of comparing the outputs of the algorithm for slightly different inputs. By observing the differences, they were able to identify a part of the code that was not normally used, but that was activated by a special condition. This condition was the presence of a secret key of 64 bits, which was hidden in the binary code of the radios. By analyzing the code, they were able to extract the secret key and test it on encrypted communications with the TEA1 algorithm. They were thus able to confirm that the secret key allowed to decrypt the communications without knowing the normal key of 80 bits. The researchers published their official report and the source code of the TETRA encryption algorithms on their website.

Source: https://cs.ru.nl/~cmeijer/publications/All_cops_are_broadcasting_TETRA_under_scrutiny.pdf

What are the risks for critical infrastructures?

The vulnerabilities identified in TETRA represent a danger for the critical infrastructures that use this technology, because they could be exploited by cybercriminals, terrorists or spies to disrupt or damage these infrastructures.

For example, an attacker could:

  • listen to the communications and confidential data of the security or defense services
  • impersonate an operator or a manager to give false instructions or orders
  • modify or erase data or commands that control vital equipment, such as valves, switches, signals or brakes
  • cause failures, accidents, fires or explosions

These scenarios could have dramatic consequences on the security, health, economy or environment of the countries concerned.

How to protect yourself from cyberattacks on TETRA?

The users of TETRA must be aware of the vulnerabilities of this technology and take measures to protect themselves from potential cyberattacks. Among the recommendations of the researchers, we can mention:

  • check if the radios used are affected by the vulnerabilities and ask the manufacturers for correction solutions
  • avoid using the algorithm TEA1, which contains the backdoor, and prefer safer algorithms, such as TEA3 or TEA4
  • use encryption keys that are long and complex enough, and change them regularly
  • set up verification and authentication procedures for communications and data
  • monitor the radio traffic and detect anomalies or intrusion attempts
  • raise awareness and train staff on cybersecurity and good practices

TETRA digital mode: how to transfer data via TETRA

TETRA (Terrestrial Trunked Radio) is a digital and secure radio communication standard used by emergency services, law enforcement, public transport and industries. TETRA uses a π/4-DQPSK phase modulation and a TDMA time division multiplexing to transmit voice and data on a bandwidth of 25 KHz per transmission channel. Each channel is divided into four timeslots, one of which is reserved for signaling in trunked mode (TMO).

TETRA allows file transfer via radio in two ways: by the packet data service (PDS) or by the circuit data service (CDS).

The PDS uses the IP protocol to transmit data packets on one or more timeslots. It offers a maximum throughput of 28.8 kbit/s per timeslot, or 86.4 kbit/s for three timeslots. The PDS can be used to send small files, such as images, text messages or forms.

The CDS uses the LAPD protocol to transmit data by circuit on a dedicated timeslot. It offers a constant throughput of 4.8 kbit/s per timeslot, or 19.2 kbit/s for four timeslots. The CDS can be used to send large files, such as documents, videos or maps.

The choice of the data service depends on the type of file, the size of the file, the quality of the radio link, the cost and the availability of radio resources. The PDS offers more flexibility and performance, but it requires a good signal quality and it can be more expensive in terms of battery consumption and spectrum occupation. The CDS offers more reliability and simplicity, but it requires a prior allocation of a timeslot and it can be slower and less efficient.

Securing TETRA file transfers with Freemindtronic’s EviCypher technology

However, both data services are subject to the TETRA security vulnerabilities that we have discussed in the previous sections. These vulnerabilities could allow an attacker to intercept, modify or corrupt the files transferred via TETRA, or to prevent their transmission altogether. Therefore, the users of TETRA must ensure the integrity and the confidentiality of the files they send or receive, by using encryption, verification and authentication methods. Freemindtronic’s EviCypher technology can be a valuable solution for encrypting data with post-quantum AES-256 from an NFC HSM with your own randomly generated keys before transferring them via TETRA. This way, even if an attacker corrupts the data transmitted by TETRA, they will not be able to decrypt the data encrypted by a product embedding

How to secure file transfers via TETRA with Freemindtronic’s EviCypher technology

La technologie EviCypher de Freemindtronic peut être une solution précieuse pour chiffrer les données avec AES-256 post-quantique à partir d’un HSM NFC avec vos propres clés générées aléatoirement avant de les transférer via TETRA. Ainsi, même si un attaquant corrompt les données transmises par TETRA, il ne pourra pas décrypter les données cryptées par un produit embarquant la technologie EviCypher NFC HSM technology, such as DataShielder NFC HSM or DataSielder Defense NFC HSM. These products are portable and autonomous devices that allow you to secure the access to computer systems, applications or online services, using the NFC as a means of authentication and encryption.

The management of encryption keys for TETRA

To use encryption on the TETRA network, you need an encryption key, which is a secret code of 80 bits, or 10 bytes. This key must be shared between the radios that want to communicate securely, and must be protected against theft, loss or compromise.

There are several methods to save and enter encryption keys for TETRA, depending on the type of radio and the level of security required. Here are some examples:

  • The manual method: it consists of entering the encryption key using the keyboard of the radio, by typing the 10 bytes in hexadecimal form. This method is simple, but impractical and unsafe, because it requires to know the key by heart or to write it down on a support, which increases the risk of disclosure or error. For example, a 80-bit key could be 3A4F9C7B12E8D6F0.
  • The automatic method: it consists of using an external device, such as a computer or a smart card, which generates and transfers the encryption key to the radio by a cable or a wireless link. This method is faster and more reliable, but it requires to have a compatible and secure device, and to connect it to the radio at each key change.
  • The EviPass method: it consists of using the EviPass NFC HSM technology which allows to generate, store and manage keys and secrets in a secure and independent NFC HSM device. This method is the most innovative and secure, because it allows to create keys higher than 80 bits randomly in hexadecimal base 16, 58, 64 or 85, to store them in a physical device protected by an access code and a robust AES-256 post-quantum encryption algorithm, and to transfer them by various contactless means, via a computer. This method does not require to know or write down the key, which reduces the risk of disclosure or error. For example, a 10-byte key of 80 bits could be 3F 8A 6B 4C 9D 1E 7F 2A 5B 0C.

The EviPass NFC HSM technology of Freemindtronic allows to create secure gateways between the NFC devices and the computer systems, using advanced encryption protocols, such as AES, RSA or ECC. The EviPass NFC HSM technology is embedded in the PassCyber NFC HSM product, which is a portable and autonomous device that allows to secure the access to computer systems, applications or online or offligne services, using the NFC as a means of authentication.

Conclusion

TETRA is a radio technology that was designed to offer secure and reliable communication to professional mobile services and critical infrastructures. But this technology, which has been kept secret for decades, presents vulnerabilities that could be exploited by cyberattackers to compromise these communications and infrastructures. The users of TETRA must be vigilant and take measures to protect themselves from these threats, by updating their equipment, choosing robust encryption algorithms, using strong keys, verifying and authenticating data and monitoring radio traffic. The EviPass NFC HSM technology of Freemindtronic can be an effective solution to strengthen the security of keys and secrets used for verification and authentication, by storing them in a secure and independent NFC device. The researchers who revealed the vulnerabilities of TETRA hope that their work will contribute to improve the security of communications in critical domains.

How to choose the best multi-factor authentication method for your online security

Multi-factor authentication how to choose the best multi factor authentication MFA method for your online security and PassCypher NFC HSM solution passwordless MFA from Freemindtronic

Multi-factor Authentication by Jacques Gascuel: This article will be updated with any new information on the topic.  

Why use multi-factor authentication?

Passwords are not enough to protect your online accounts from cybercriminals. You need to use a more robust authentication method: multi-factor authentication. It combines several factors to verify your identity, such as passwordless MFA. In this article, you will discover what it is, how it works and how to choose it.

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Everything you need to know about multi-factor authentication and its variants

Have you ever wondered how to protect your online accounts and data from hackers and cybercriminals? If so, you need to know about multi-factor authentication and its variants. Authentication is the process that verifies the identity of a user who wants to access a website, an application or a system. Authentication is essential to protect the security and privacy of data and online transactions. Without proper authentication, hackers and malicious actors can access sensitive information, steal identities, compromise accounts or commit fraud.

There are different authentication methods that can offer different levels of security and convenience for users. Some methods use only one factor, such as a password, to verify a user’s identity. This is called single-factor authentication (SFA). SFA is simple, fast and convenient, but also very insecure and unreliable. Other methods use two or more factors, such as a password and a code, to verify a user’s identity. This is called multi-factor authentication (MFA). MFA offers a high level of security because it makes it harder for attackers to obtain all the factors needed to access an account.

In this article, we will explain the main differences between six popular methods of authentication: single-factor authentication (SFA), multi-factor authentication (MFA), two-factor authentication (2FA), two-step verification (2SV), one-time passwords (OTP) and passwordless multi-factor authentication (Passwordless MFA). We will also introduce you to a new product that offers an innovative and eco-friendly solution for contactless multi-factor authentication: PassCypher NFC HSM. We will also discuss another method of authentication that allows users to access multiple applications or services with one login. This is called single sign-on (SSO). SSO can use different protocols, such as SAML, OAuth, or OpenID Connect, to verify the user’s identity and grant access.

According to a report by Microsoft, 99.9% of account compromise attacks can be blocked by using multi-factor authentication. Therefore, it is important to choose the best authentication method for your online security. In this article, we will help you understand the pros and cons of each method and how to choose the best one for your needs and preferences.

Why use multi-factor authentication?

You use passwords for your online accounts; but are they secure enough? Cybercriminals can steal, guess or hack them easily; you hear many news about it. You want to improve their protection and usage; you need to know more. You need to know the different methods of multi-factor authentication; up to the most robust one, like passwordless MFA. In this article, you will get answers and learn more.

How to evaluate the level of resistance to cyberattacks?

We use several criteria to evaluate the level of resistance to cyberattacks of an authentication method, such as:

  • The number and diversity of factors used: An attacker has a harder time getting all the factors if there are more of them. It is also better to combine factors of different natures (what you know, what you have, what you are); they are less vulnerable to the same types of attacks.
  • The complexity and variability of factors used: An attacker has a harder time guessing or reproducing the factors if they are more complex and variable. For example, a long and random password is more resistant than a short and simple one. Likewise, a one-time code is more resistant than a fixed one.
  • The security and reliability of communication channels used: An attacker has a harder time intercepting or altering the channels if they are more secure and reliable. For example, an encrypted connection is more secure than an unencrypted one. Likewise, a push notification is more reliable than an SMS.
  • The ease and speed of use for the user: Users are more likely to adopt the methods if they are easier and faster. A too complex or slow method can discourage users or make them bypass security. For example, facial recognition is easier and faster than a USB key.

We give a score out of 10 to each authentication method based on these criteria; we consider the pros and cons of each factor and channel. This score reflects the level of resistance to cyberattacks of the method; its ability to prevent or reduce the impact of an attack.

What are the differences between MFA, 2FA, 2SV, SFA, SSO, OTP and Passwordless MFA?

MFA, 2FA, 2SV, Passwordless MFA, OTP and SFA are all types of authentication methods that require users to provide one or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to prove their identity. However, they have distinct differences in terms of how they work and how secure they are. Here is a summary of each one:

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

MFA is a security enhancement that requires users to submit two or more pieces of evidence (factors) to access a system. These factors can belong to different categories, such as:

  • Knowledge: something that the user knows, such as a password, a PIN or an answer to a secret question.
  • Possession: something that the user has, such as a smartphone, a smart card or a hardware token.
  • Inherence: something that the user is, such as a fingerprint, a retina scan or a facial recognition.

MFA offers a high level of security because it makes it harder for attackers to obtain all the factors needed to access an account. Even if one factor is compromised, such as a password, the other factors can still prevent unauthorized access.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 8/10

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

2FA is a type of MFA; it uses two distinct factors of authentication. These factors must belong to two different categories; such as knowledge and possession. For example, you can log in to an account; with your username and password (knowledge). Then you receive a notification on your smartphone (possession); to approve the login.

2FA offers an intermediate level of security between single-factor authentication by password only and MFA by adding an extra layer of protection against unauthorized access attempts. However, it can be less secure than 2FA; if it uses factors that belong to the same category; such as knowledge.

Indeed, if an attacker manages to obtain the password and the additional code; they can access the account without any problem.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 6/10

Two-Step Verification (2SV)

2SV is a type of MFA that requires two sequential steps of verification using authentication factors. These steps can belong to the same category, such as knowledge. For example, Google uses 2SV for its accounts. To log in, the user enters their username and password (knowledge), then they enter an additional code that they receive by SMS or email (knowledge).

2SV offers an intermediate level of security between single-factor authentication by password only and 2FA by adding an extra layer of protection against unauthorized access attempts. However, it can be less secure than 2FA if it uses factors that belong to the same category, such as knowledge.

Indeed, if an attacker manages to obtain the password and the additional code, they can access the account without any problem.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 4/10

Single-Factor Authentication (SFA)

Single-Factor Authentication (SFA) is a security method that uses only one factor to verify a user’s identity. A factor is something that the user knows, has, or is. For example:

  • One piece of evidence (factor) verifies a user’s identity with SFA.
  • The factor can be something the user knows (password, PIN, secret question), has (smartphone, smart card, hardware token), or is (fingerprint, retina scan, facial recognition).
  • SFA has some benefits but also many drawbacks. It is simple, fast and convenient, but also insecure, unreliable and non-compliant.
  • Many cyberattacks expose users to SFA, such as phishing, keylogging, brute force or credential stuffing.
  • Attackers can easily obtain the factor and access the account without the user’s consent.
  • If the factor is compromised (e.g., password), the account is vulnerable to unauthorized access.
  • SFA does not meet the security standards or regulations of some industries or organizations (e.g., banks, government agencies).

SFA offers a low level of security because it makes it easy for attackers to obtain the factor needed to access an account. If the factor is compromised, such as a password, the user’s account is vulnerable to unauthorized access.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 2/10

Single Sign-On (SSO) and Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)

Single Sign-On (SSO) is a security method that allows users to access multiple applications or services with one login. The user only needs to enter their username and password once, and the SSO service authenticates them for all the connected applications. SSO can use different protocols, such as SAML, OAuth, or OpenID Connect, to verify the user’s identity and grant access. SSO has some advantages and disadvantages that you should consider before choosing it as your authentication method.

  • Pros of SSO
    • Reduced password fatigue: Users only need to remember one password instead of many. This makes it easier to create strong and unique passwords for each application.
    • Simplified user and password management: IT admins can control the access rights of users from a central place. They can also revoke or change the passwords of users who leave the organization or lose their devices.
    • Improved identity protection: SSO can use additional security measures, such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), to enhance the verification process. MFA is a type of authentication that requires two or more factors to verify a user’s identity. These factors can be something that the user knows, has, or is, such as a password, a smartphone, or a fingerprint. MFA offers a higher level of security than single-factor authentication (SFA), which only requires one factor, such as a password.
  • Cons of SSO
    • Limited user control: Users cannot choose which applications are included in the SSO service. They may also have difficulty logging out of all the applications at once.
    • Incompatible apps: Some applications may not support the SSO protocols or require additional configuration to work with the SSO service. This may limit the number of applications that users can access with one login.
    • Unpredictable costs and time: Implementing and maintaining an SSO service may be costly or complex for some organizations. They may need to buy or develop software, pay for subscription fees, train users or staff, or comply with regulations.

SSO has some benefits but also some drawbacks that you should consider before choosing it as your authentication method. You should weigh the pros and cons of SSO and compare them with your security goals and resources.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 7/10

Passwordless Multi-Factor Authentication (Passwordless MFA)

Passwordless MFA is a term used to describe an authentication method; that does not require a password; and that uses multiple factors. For example, you can log in to an account; using your fingerprint (inherence) and a code generated by your smartphone (possession); without having to enter your username or password.

Passwordless MFA offers the highest level of security; when implemented correctly; because it eliminates the risk of password theft or leakage. It also improves convenience and user experience; because it does not require memorization or input of passwords.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 10/10

One-Time Passwords (OTP)

OTP are random and temporary codes; that are used as additional factors of authentication. There are two main types of OTP: Time-based One-Time Password (TOTP) and HMAC-based One-Time Password (HOTP).

Time-based One-Time Password (TOTP)

TOTP is a type of OTP that is generated based on time; it uses a secret key shared between the server and the client; as well as a counter based on the client’s clock. The server and the client calculate the same code; using the same key and the same counter. The code is valid for a short period, usually 30 seconds.

TOTP offers a high level of security because it prevents the reuse of codes. Even if an attacker intercepts a code, they will not be able to use it after its expiration.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 7/10

HMAC-based One-Time Password (HOTP)

HOTP is a type of OTP that is generated based on an incremental counter. It uses a secret key shared between the server and the client, as well as a counter that increments every time a code is generated or validated. The server and the client calculate the same code using the same key and the same counter. The code does not have a fixed validity period, but it must be used in order.

HOTP offers an intermediate level of security because it requires synchronization between the server and the client. If the client’s counter is offset from the server’s counter, there may be authentication errors. Moreover, if an attacker manages to obtain the secret key or the counter, they can generate valid codes.

Level of resistance to cyber attacks: 5/10

Statistics on MFA, 2FA, 2SV, SFA, OTP (TOTP and HOTP), Passwordless MFA and SSO

To illustrate the importance and popularity of multi-factor authentication methods, here are some statistics from various sources:

  • According to the 2021 Duo Trusted Access Report, the total number of MFA authentications increased by 39% over the past year, while biometric authentications saw an even faster growth, with a 48% increase.
  • The report also indicates that Duo Push is the most popular authentication method, accounting for 30% of the total authentications, followed by SMS (25%) and phone calls (19%).
  • Among customers using location policies, 74% block Russia and China, which are the most frequently blocked countries in authentication apps.
  • In 2020, Duo Security conducted a survey of over 4,000 people in the US and UK on their experience and perception of 2FA. The survey revealed that 79% of respondents had used 2FA in 2020, up from 53% in 2019 and 28% in 2017.
  • The survey also showed that SMS (85%) continues to be the second most common factor that respondents with 2FA experience have used, slightly up from 2019 (72%). Email is the second most common factor (74%), with a notable increase from 2019 (57%).
  • According to a report by Okta, an identity and access management company, SSO adoption increased by 68% between February and April 2020, as more organizations shifted to remote work due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The report also found that SSO usage was highest among education (60%), technology (58%), and non-profit (49%) sectors. The most popular SSO protocols were SAML (54%), OAuth (24%), and OpenID Connect (22%).

These statistics show that multi-factor authentication methods are more effective and popular than single-factor authentication methods. They provide higher levels of security and reliability for users and organizations. However, they also reveal that there is still room for improvement and awareness in terms of online security. Many users and companies do not use multi-factor authentication or use weak factors that can be compromised. Therefore, it is important to educate and encourage users and companies to adopt multi-factor authentication methods that suit their needs and preferences.

Discover PassCypher NFC HSM: an innovative solution for contactless multi-factor authentication

You now have a better understanding of the different methods of multi-factor authentication and their pros and cons. You may have noticed that some methods have weaknesses, such as vulnerability to cyber attacks, dependency on network or battery availability, or complexity of managing passwords.

Fortunately, there is a solution that combines security, convenience and ecology to protect your data and online transactions. We introduce you to PassCypher NFC HSM, a product developed by Freemindtronic that allows you to store and manage passwords, one-time passwords (OTP) and HMAC-based passwords (HOTP) in a wireless and battery-free device. It uses EviOTP technology, which is a patented solution by Freemindtronic to generate OTP without internet connection or power supply. It works with NFC-compatible Android smartphones and computers equipped with a Chromium or Firefox web browser.

The benefits of PassCypher NFC HSM

Some of the benefits of PassCypher NFC HSM over traditional multi-factor authentication solutions are:

  • Higher resistance to cyber attacks: It uses a NFC HSM device that stores the secrets in an encrypted way. It also verifies the validity of the device used, its pairing key, its unique anti-counterfeiting key, and the validation of the Authenticator Sandbox. It does this with auto verification of fraudulent URLs.
  • Greater convenience: It does not require network or battery. You just need to scan the PassCypher NFC HSM device with your smartphone. This will automatically fill in the login fields on your computer or display the OTP code. The OTP code corresponds to the online service.
  • Better eco-friendliness: It reduces energy consumption and CO2 emissions. It uses a wireless and battery-free device. It works with EviOTP technology, which generates OTP without network or battery. You can scan them with your smartphone to access your accounts.
  • More customization: It allows the user to freely define the authentication factors that they want to use. They can add cumulative factors such as the UID of the NFC Android phone, a BSSID or an authorized geofence. They can also add additional factors that involve their intervention. For example, a biometric criterion or a segmented key via a QR code or a hexadecimal barcode.

The features of PassCypher NFC HSM

PassCypher NFC HSM offers several features that facilitate the management and use of passwords and OTP. Here are some of these features:

  • It allows you to automatically fill in the identifiers and passwords of 2SV methods, such as Google or Facebook, using a browser extension. You just need to scan the PassCypher NFC HSM device with your smartphone to automatically fill in the login fields on your computer.
  • It manages TOTP, such as those used by GitHub or Dropbox, using a dedicated application on your smartphone. You just need to scan the PassCypher NFC HSM device with your smartphone to display the TOTP code corresponding to the online service. For this, you must have previously saved the OTP codes via the QR Code generated from the site that authorizes 2FA via TOTP or HOTP.
  • It has an advanced configurable passwordless MFA function patented using physical origin segmented key authentication defined freely by the user. It can add them cumulatively for each secret stored in the NFC HSM of segments that can be UID of the NFC Android phone, a BSSID or an authorized geofence. It can also add additional factors that involve their intervention, such as a biometric criterion or a segmented key via a QR code or a hexadecimal barcode. You just need to scan the PassCypher NFC HSM device with your smartphone to access your account without entering any username or password.
  • It allows you to save and restore contactlessly, in real time in volatile memory of the phone or computer, without needing a server, database, without needing to create an account and anonymously and encrypted end-to-end from the NFC HSM. It works on the NFC Android phone and on computer via an extension only on the local network encrypted end-to-end from the NFC HSM. You just need to pass the PassCypher NFC HSM under your smartphone’s antenna to auto-connect to the cloud service via the passwordless MFA process.
  • It allows you to share secrets stored in NFC HSM by various means with other authorized users with trust criteria who also have a PassCypher NFC HSM. Sharing can be done in presence of the recipient who scans a QR Code of the secret shared via coded QR Code. It can share nearby by bluetooth file sharing. It can also share remotely via all means of communication existing in their phone including SMS or RCS using a 4096-bit RSA public key that the recipient has freely generated in their NFC HSM that they regenerate at will. It can also share it contactlessly via Android Beam NFC technology.

Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed how to choose the best multi-factor authentication method for your online security. We have also compared some of the most popular and innovative solutions available in the market. Multi-factor authentication is a vital component of online security that protects your data and transactions from unauthorized access. However, not all methods are suitable for all situations and needs. Therefore, you should consider several factors when choosing an authentication method, such as:

  • The type and sensitivity of the data or transactions that you want to protect. Some data or transactions are more valuable or confidential than others. For example, your bank account or medical records require more protection than your social media account or online shopping.
  • The availability and reliability of the network or battery for your devices. Some methods depend on the network or battery to work. For example, you cannot use SMS or email if you have no internet connection or phone signal. Likewise, you cannot use a USB key or a smart card if your device has no power or port.
  • The ease and frequency of use and management of the authentication factors. Some methods are easier and faster to use and manage than others. For example, facial recognition or fingerprint scanning are more convenient than typing a password or entering a code. However, you may also need to change or update your factors regularly to maintain their security.
  • The compatibility and interoperability of the authentication method with your devices and platforms. Some methods work only with specific devices or platforms. For example, you cannot use an Apple Watch or a Google Authenticator app if you have an Android phone or a Windows computer. Likewise, you cannot use a biometric scanner if your device does not have one.
  • The cost and benefit of implementing and maintaining the authentication method. Some methods are more expensive or complex to implement and maintain than others. For example, you may need to buy additional hardware or software, pay for subscription fees, train users or staff, or comply with regulations.

These factors can help you decide which authentication method suits your needs and preferences best. You should weigh the pros and cons of each method and compare them with your security goals and resources.

Comparison of popular authentication methods

We have explained the main differences between five popular methods of multi-factor authentication: multi-factor authentication (MFA), two-factor authentication (2FA), two-step verification (2SV), passwordless multi-factor authentication (Passwordless MFA) and one-time passwords (OTP). Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages depending on the context and implementation. We have also introduced you to a new product that offers an innovative and eco-friendly solution for contactless multi-factor authentication: PassCypher NFC HSM.

PassCypher NFC HSM offers several benefits over traditional multi-factor authentication solutions, such as SMS or email

Freemindtronic designed, developed and manufactured PassCypher NFC HSM. This product lets you store and manage passwords, keys, OTP and HOTP. It uses a wireless, battery-free NFC HSM device. It works for life without maintenance. It also incorporates several EviPass technologies. EviCore NFC HSM and EviOTP technology are patented by Freemindtronic. With these technologies, you can manage, store, share, encrypt and generate OTP code securely. You can do this contactlessly from NFC devices. It does not need an Internet connection, a server, a database or a power supply. It works contactless with NFC-compatible Android smartphones.

PassCypher NFC HSM also offers several features that facilitate the management and use of passwords, such as:

Password generator: It can generate strong and random passwords for any website or application.

  • Password manager: It can store and retrieve your passwords securely and conveniently.
  • OTP generator: It can generate OTP based on time (TOTP) or counter (HOTP) for any website or application that supports them.
  • HOTP generator: It can generate HOTP based on HMAC algorithm for any website or application that supports them.
  • QR code scanner: It can scan QR codes that contain OTP information and generate the corresponding OTP.
  • Web extension: This is a feature that can integrate with your web browser. It can automatically fill in your complicated and complex usernames and passwords in MFA Passwordless. It does this for any website you visit.

One of the features of PassCypher NFC HSM is that it can store and manage SSO credentials and passwords for automatic login in passwordless MFA. This means that you can use PassCypher NFC HSM to access multiple applications or services with one tap, without entering any password. This increases the level of security of the authentication by SSO, as it eliminates the risk of password theft or compromise. Similarly, PassCypher NFC HSM can also store and manage SFA credentials and passwords for automatic login in passwordless MFA. This means that you can use PassCypher NFC HSM to access any website or system with one tap, without entering any password. This increases the level of security of the authentication by SFA, as it reduces the password fatigue and reuse.

PassCypher NFC HSM is a powerful and innovative product that enhances your online security and convenience. It is compatible with any type of authentication method, such as MFA, 2FA, 2SV, Passwordless MFA or SFA. It is also easy to use and eco-friendly.

If you are interested in trying out PassCypher NFC HSM, you can order it from our [website] or download our [web extension] for free. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to [contact us]. We would love to hear from you.

PassCypher NFC HSM: Secure and Convenient Password Management

PassCypher NFC HSM contactless hardware password manager Freemindtronic Technology from Andorra

PassCypher NFC HSM by Jacques Gascuel This article will be updated with any new information on the topic, and readers are encouraged to leave comments or contact the author with any suggestions or additions.

Discover Secure Password Management with PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM

Protect your passwords with innovative solutions from PassCypher. From contactless management to invention patents, enhanced security, and versatility, find out how PassCypher provides you with a convenient and secure solution for password management. Don’t let data vulnerability be a concern anymore. Dive into our dedicated article on PassCypher products and take control of your password security.

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PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM: Secure and Convenient Password Management

Introduction

PassCypher offers a range of contactless hardware password managers known as PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM. These products are protected by three invention patents and incorporate EviPass, EviOTP, and EviCore NFC HSM technologies, along with Freemindtronic’s NFC HSM devices, EviTag, and Evicard. PassCypher allows you to securely and conveniently store and manage passwords, one-time passwords (OTP), and HMAC-based passwords. It eliminates the need for a power source or internet connection. Additionally, PassCypher features a built-in RSA 4096 key manager with a random generator capable of changing the key up to one million times without any risk of error. It seamlessly works on Android NFC-enabled phones with fingerprint access control and is compatible with computers supporting Chromium-based or Firefox-based web browsers with autofill and auto login functionalities. For computer use, users need to install the PassCypher NFC Web Browser Extension and EviDNS software, which acts as a hotspot for pairing the extension with the PassCypher NFC HSM application through the local network. PassCypher is not compatible with Safari.

 

Features and Benefits

PassCypher’s web browser extension offers several convenient features, including:

Management of Paired Phones

With PassCypher, you can easily manage the phones paired with the EviCore NFC HSM for Web Browser extension. You can add phones to the list of paired devices, manage favorites, make direct calls, and delete paired phones.

Create a New Label (Secret)

PassCypher enables you to create labels containing sensitive information such as login IDs, passwords, OTPs, or HOTPs. You can define the name of the label and use an intelligent random password generator for login IDs and segmented keys. Additionally, PassCypher allows you to create a compatible QR Code for each label.

Digital Post-it

Retrieve labels from the NFC HSM in clear text using the Digital Post-it feature. This enables you to manually use the information for copying and pasting, including login IDs.

Free Tools: Advanced Password Manager

PassCypher offers a real-time entropy state bar based on Shannon’s mathematical function and a passphrase generator. It also includes various features such as checking if your password has been compromised in a data breach, generating personalized password and segmented key labels, and fetching login credentials and cloud keys.

Authenticator Sandbox

The Authenticator Sandbox function provides automatic anti-phishing protection by verifying the URL before authorizing auto-filling login fields. It leverages EviCore NFC HSM technology to store the URL during the first automatic login to a favorite site. Upon subsequent logins, PassCypher checks if the URL matches the auto-login request, ensuring seamless and secure authentication.

Segmented Key Generator

PassCypher introduces an innovative segmented key generator that requires multiple parties to reconstruct the key. The extension automatically populates the appropriate fields for each key component, ensuring the key’s integrity and security.

Pwned Function (Enhanced Cybersecurity)

Pwned offers proactive monitoring for online credentials. By leveraging a database of compromised usernames and passwords, PassCypher securely checks if your login information has been compromised in past data breaches. This feature helps prevent identity theft by promptly alerting you to compromised credentials and enabling you to change your password immediately.

Secret Phrase Generator (Passphrase)

Generate mnemonic phrases with basic salting using PassCypher’s Secret Phrase Generator. You can customize the number of words in your passphrase and choose special characters for separation. The real-time entropy control based on Shannon’s mathematical function enhances the security of your passphrases.

 

Advantages of PassCypher

PassCypher offers numerous advantages to its users:

  1. High-level Security: High-level security: PassCypher provides optimal security with AES 256-bit segmented key post-quantum encryption in NFC HSM memories, zero-knowledge architecture, patented technology and an integrated RSA 4096 key that enhances share security and remote backup of OTP passwords, segmented keys and secret keys.
  2. User-Friendly: PassCypher is easy to use with its contactless NFC card or tag, which can be conveniently placed on smartphones, computers, or other compatible devices.
  3. Environmentally Friendly and Cost-effective: PassCypher eliminates the need for batteries, cables, or power sources, making it eco-friendly and cost-effective.
  4. Versatility: PassCypher can manage passwords, OTPs, and HOTPs, providing two-factor authentication capabilities.
  5. Compatibility: PassCypher is compatible with various operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS) and web browsers based on Chromium or Firefox.
  6. One-time Purchase: There are no financial commitments or subscriptions required to purchase PassCypher products.
  7. Absolute Anonymity: PassCypher follows the principles of zero-trust and plug-and-play, requiring no account creation or collection of personal or hardware information. It ensures complete user anonymity.
  8. Built-in Black Box: The NFC HSM Tag and Card devices feature a black box that records certain events, such as the number of incorrect password attempts, providing traceability and security.
  9. Air Gap Functionality: PassCypher operates in an air gap mode, independent of servers or secret databases. It securely stores all data in real-time on the volatile memory of the phone or computer.
  10. Physically Decentralized Authenticator Sandbox: The Authenticator Sandbox autofill and auto login feature is securely stored within the Evicypher application on Android phones. This allows for extreme portability across multiple computers, utilizing the energy harvested from the phone’s NFC signal without contact.
Freemindtronic win awards 2021 Next-Gen in Secrets Management with EviCypher & EviToken Technologies
Freemindtronic win awards 2021 Most Innovative in Hardware Password Manager with EviCypher & EviToken Technologies

Freemindtronic Receives Global InfoSec Awards for Innovative PassCypher NFC HSM Technology

Freemindtronic, the proud developer of PassCypher NFC HSM, has been recognized as a winner of the prestigious Global InfoSec Awards during the RSA Conference 2021. The company was honored with three awards, including the titles of “Most Innovative Hardware Password Manager” and “Next-Gen in Secrets Management” by Cyber Defense Magazine. This achievement highlights Freemindtronic’s commitment to delivering cutting-edge cybersecurity solutions. With PassCypher NFC HSM’s advanced technology, users can enjoy secure and convenient password management. Join us as we celebrate this remarkable accomplishment and learn more about the exceptional features that make PassCypher a standout choice for safeguarding sensitive information.

Disadvantages of PassCypher

Despite its many advantages, PassCypher has a few limitations:

  1. NFC Device Requirement: PassCypher requires an NFC-compatible device to function, which may limit its use on certain devices or in specific situations.
  2. Risk of Loss or Theft: Like any portable device, PassCypher can be lost or stolen, necessitating backup and recovery measures.
  3. Incompatibility with Safari: PassCypher is not compatible with the Safari browser, which may be inconvenient for Mac or iPhone users.

Lifecycle

PassCypher has an exceptionally long lifecycle, estimated to be over 40 years without maintenance or a power source. It can handle up to 1,000,000 guaranteed error-free read/write cycles, equivalent to daily use for over a millennium. PassCypher is designed to withstand extreme temperatures ranging from -40°C to +85°C. It is also resistant to shocks, scratches, magnetic fields, X-rays, and its TAG version is enveloped in military-grade resin, surpassing IP89K standards for superior waterproofing. As a result, PassCypher offers exceptional durability and resilience against external factors.

Comparison with Competitors

PassCypher stands out from its competitors in several ways:

  1. Contactless Hardware Manager: PassCypher is the only password manager that operates without requiring physical contact, providing a more convenient and hygienic solution compared to USB keys or biometric readers.
  2. Patent Protection: PassCypher is protected by three international invention patents, ensuring exclusivity and reliability compared to other solutions in the market.
  3. Innovative Technology: PassCypher incorporates EviPass, EviOTP, and EviCore NFC HSM technologies, along with Freemindtronic’s NFC HSM devices, EviTag and Evicard, providing unparalleled performance and features.
  4. RSA 4096 Key Manager: PassCypher is the only password manager that offers an RSA 4096 key manager with a random generator, allowing for one million key changes without the risk of error. This provides an additional level of security and flexibility..
  5. Value Proposition for Customers: PassCypher brings significant value to its customers by enabling them to:
    • Protect their data: PassCypher ensures the security of personal and professional data, guarding against hacking, theft, or loss.
    • Simplify password management: PassCypher centralizes the management of passwords and access codes, offering a user-friendly solution for securely handling them.
    • Securely access online accounts: PassCypher enables secure access to online accounts, even without an internet connection or power source.
    • Benefit from innovative technology: By choosing PassCypher, customers gain access to innovative and patented technology developed by Freemindtronic, a leading company in the NFC HSM field.
    • Flexibly secure secrets: PassCypher offers various options for securely backing up secrets, including cloning between NFC HSM devices (EviCard or EviTag), partial or complete copying between nearby or remote devices using RSA 4096 public key encryption, or encrypted archiving on any encrypted storage media using the RSA 4096 public key of an NFC HSM EviCard or EviTag. This flexibility provides peace of mind and adaptability to customers.
    • Choose the appropriate storage format: PassCypher is available in three different formats with varying secret storage capacities, allowing customers to choose the one that best suits their needs and budget.
    • Multilingual Support: The PassCypher Android application and web browser extension are available in 14 different languages. Users can use PassCypher in their preferred language, including Arabic (AR), Catalan (CA), Chinese (CN), German (DE), English (EN), Spanish (ES), French (FR), Italian (IT), Japanese (JA), Portuguese (PT), Romanian (RO), Russian (RU), Ukrainian (UK), and Bengali (BIN). This feature provides a personalized experience and facilitates the use of PassCypher in various international contexts.

Comparison with Competitors

To better understand the advantages of PassCypher compared to other solutions in the market, here is a comparative table:

Features PassCypher NFC HSM Competitor A Competitor B
Contactless Management Yes Yes No
Invention Patents Yes (3 international patents) No Yes (1 national patent)
NFC HSM Technology Yes (EviPass, EviOTP, EviCore) No Yes (proprietary technology)
RSA 4096 Key Manager Yes No Yes (RSA 2048 key)
Versatility Passwords, TOTP, HOTP, Fingerprint Passwords Passwords, Fingerprint
OS Compatibility Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS Windows, MacOS Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android
Browser Compatibility Chromium- or Firefox-based browsers Chrome, Firefox, Safari Chrome, Firefox
One-Time Purchase Yes Subscription Yes
Data Protection AES 256-bit, Zero-knowledge architecture for NFC memory AES 128-bit AES 256-bit, ECC, RSA 4096
Virtual Keyboard Support USB Bluetooth Multilingual No No
Biometric Authentication Fingerprint (from NFC-enabled phone) No Fingerprint (selected devices)
RSA-4096 Key Regeneration Yes (up to 1 million times without errors) N/A N/A
PassCypher Pro Compatibility All OS, Computers, TVs, NFC-enabled phones Limited compatibility Limited compatibility

This table highlights the unique features of PassCypher, such as contactless management, invention patents, NFC HSM technology, RSA 4096 key manager, and extensive compatibility with operating systems and browsers. Compared to competitors, PassCypher offers superior versatility, enhanced security, and flexibility in purchasing options.

Comparison with Competitors

PassCypher stands out from its competitors in several key aspects. Let’s compare PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM with two major competitors in the market, Competitor A and Competitor B.

PassCypher NFC HSM vs. Competitor A

PassCypher NFC HSM offers contactless management, protected by three international invention patents, and utilizes advanced NFC HSM technology (EviPass, EviOTP, EviCore). It includes an RSA 4096 key manager, enabling secure key changes and flexibility. PassCypher NFC HSM supports passwords, OTPs, and HOTPs for versatile authentication. It is compatible with various operating systems and browsers, including Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, and iOS, as well as Chromium and Firefox. PassCypher NFC HSM is available for one-time purchase, providing long-term value and eliminating subscription fees. With AES 256-bit data protection and a zero-knowledge architecture, PassCypher ensures the highest level of security.

In comparison, Competitor A also offers contactless management and AES 128-bit data protection. However, it lacks the extensive patent protection, advanced NFC HSM technology, and RSA 4096 key manager provided by PassCypher. Additionally, Competitor A may have limited compatibility with operating systems and browsers, restricting its usability for some users.

PassCypher NFC HSM vs. Competitor B

PassCypher NFC HSM surpasses Competitor B with its contactless management, three international invention patents, and NFC HSM technology (EviPass, EviOTP, EviCore). It includes an RSA 4096 key manager for secure and flexible key changes. PassCypher NFC HSM supports passwords, OTPs, and HOTPs, providing versatile authentication options. It offers compatibility with a wide range of operating systems and browsers, including Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, and iOS, as well as Chromium and Firefox. The one-time purchase model of PassCypher NFC HSM eliminates ongoing subscription fees. With AES 256-bit data protection and a zero-knowledge architecture, PassCypher ensures the utmost security for user data.

In comparison, Competitor B offers contactless management, AES 256-bit data protection, and compatibility with multiple operating systems. However, it lacks the advanced NFC HSM technology, invention patents, and RSA 4096 key manager offered by PassCypher, limiting its capabilities and security features.

Conclusion

PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM are cutting-edge solutions for secure and convenient password management. With advanced NFC HSM technology, patent protection, and versatile features, PassCypher offers unparalleled security and flexibility. Whether it’s protecting personal or professional data, simplifying password management, or securely accessing online accounts, PassCypher provides a comprehensive solution.

By choosing PassCypher, users gain access to innovative technology, a one-time purchase model, and multilingual support. PassCypher’s ability to securely back up secrets and its compatibility with various operating systems and browsers further enhance its appeal. In comparison to its competitors, PassCypher demonstrates superior versatility, advanced security measures, and a user-friendly approach.

Discover the next level of password management with PassCypher NFC HSM and PassCypher Pro NFC HSM, and experience the peace of mind that comes with secure and convenient password management.

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766 trillion years to find 20-character code like a randomly generated password

A server rack filled with multiple GPUs connected by yellow and black cables, illustrating the complexity and power needed to crack a 20-character code in 766 trillion years.

766 trillion years to find randomly generated 20-character code like randomly generated password

766 trillion years to find randomly generated 20-character code is the result of a simulator to find a 20-character generated by technology EviPass.

The age of the universe is estimated at only 14 billion years, this gives you an idea of comparison.

How did I find this result that you can control on your own?

We used the Password Strength Calculator developed by Bob Beeman [1] which was last updated on January 4, 2013.

This simulator is freely available on the www.bee-man.us website as well as the source code used.

Why We Chose Bob Beeman’s Simulator

In our quest to estimate the time it would take to crack a random 20-character code, we had several simulation tools at our disposal, including lastbit.com [2], password-checker.online-domain-tools.com [3], and ANSSI’s [4] simulator from ssi.gouv.fr. However, we ultimately opted for Mr. Bob BEEMAN’s simulator due to its transparent calculation method and its technical approach to brute force attacks.

Acknowledging Mr. Bob BEEMAN

Before delving into the details of our simulation, we must extend our gratitude to Mr. Bob BEEMAN for making his code freely accessible and copyable while upholding his copyrights, as explained on his website. We hope our research can contribute to his already impressive achievements, including a record-breaking 15-millisecond feat.

Reference to Ultra-Powerful Computers

To provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the state-of-the-art technology for brute force attacks in 2013, we examined Bob Beeman’s simulator’s reference to an ultra-powerful computer designed in 2012 specifically for password cracking.

Considering Computational Capacity

Bob Beeman’s simulator takes into account the computational capabilities of computers, including the 2012 design, for executing brute force attacks on passwords. It allows for adjustments in the “Values of Hacker: Axes/Second,” providing a valuable point of reference and comparison.

Staying with Default Parameters

For the sake of consistency, we maintained the default example provided by Bob Beeman, which assumed a rate of 60-109 (billion) attempts per second.

Radeon City: Revolutionizing Password Security

In this section, we’ll delve into the incredible story of Radeon City, a game-changing password-cracking cluster boasting 25 AMD Radeon graphics cards. Discover how it was built, what it can achieve, and why it’s reshaping the world of password security.

Building Radeon City

Jeremi Gosney, the visionary behind Radeon City and the CEO of Stricture Consulting Group, sought to create a powerhouse capable of cracking passwords with unprecedented speed and efficiency. His solution? Virtual OpenCL (VCL), a groundbreaking virtualization software.

Gosney assembled five servers, each armed with five AMD Radeon HD7970 graphics cards, interconnected through VCL. The cluster, aptly named Radeon City, was born at a cost of approximately $30,000 in 2012.

Unleashing Radeon City’s Power

Radeon City is a juggernaut, capable of generating an astounding 350 billion guesses per second when cracking NTLM cryptographic algorithm hashes. In just 5.5 hours, it can test every combination of eight-character passwords, including uppercase and lowercase letters, digits, and symbols.

But it doesn’t stop there. Radeon City can crack a range of cryptographic algorithms, from MD5 and SHA1 to SHA2 and even SHA3, at unprecedented speeds. It employs various attack types, including brute force, dictionary, rule-based, combinator, and hybrid attacks, using extensive wordlists and intricate rules.

Radeon City isn’t confined to offline attacks. It can also perform online attacks through distributed cracking, where passwords are guessed on live systems.

Why Radeon City is a Game-Changer

Radeon City marks a seismic shift in password security. It reveals the vulnerability of passwords protected by fast algorithms like NTLM and challenges the belief that longer, complex passwords equate to greater security. The key takeaway? Truly secure passwords are random strings absent from dictionaries.

Moreover, Radeon City advocates for slow and salted algorithms like Bcrypt, PBKDF2, or SHA512crypt, and underscores the importance of password management tools like EviPass.

Radeon City Specifications

Jeremi Gosney, a data security researcher, engineered a groundbreaking desktop rig that can swiftly dismantle older protocols. Leveraging the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) framework and Virtual OpenCL Open Cluster (VCL), Gosney deployed HashCat—a dedicated password-cracking program. The system comprises five quad-core servers, each housing 25 AMD Radeon GPUs, providing the immense computational power required for the task. These servers are interconnected with a 10 to 20 Gbps transfer rate facilitated by an Infiniband switch.

server filled with 25 AMD Radeon HD 7970 GPUs

Here’s a snapshot of Radeon City’s technical specifications:

  • Servers: 5
  • Graphics Cards: 25 AMD Radeon GPUs
  • Model: AMD Radeon HD7970
  • Memory: 3 GB GDDR5
  • Clock Speed: 925 MHz
  • Compute Units: 32
  • Stream Processors: 2048
  • Peak Performance: 3.79 TFLOPS
  • Virtualization Software: Virtual OpenCL (VCL)
  • Password-Cracking Software: ocl-Hashcat Plus
  • Cost: $30,000 (2012)

This powerhouse enables Radeon City to achieve unprecedented speeds in password cracking, making it a game-changer in the realm of data security.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Radeon City

Advantages:

  1. Power: Radeon City cracks passwords using both fast and slow algorithms.
  2. Flexibility: It executes a variety of attacks with extensive wordlists and complex rules.
  3. Innovation: Using virtualization technology, it overcomes hardware limitations.

Disadvantages:

  1. Cost: Building and operating Radeon City can be expensive, including high electricity costs.
  2. Noise: It generates significant noise, requiring specialized cooling and soundproofing.
  3. Ethical Considerations: While powerful, its capabilities raise ethical and legal questions about its potential misuse.

Simulation Parameters and Results

To calculate the estimated time required to find a 20-character code with 94 symbols, we used the formula:

a^b / (c * 2)

Where:

  • “a” represents the number of possible characters,
  • “b” denotes the number of characters in the password,
  • “c” indicates the number of hash calculations achievable per second.

By selecting 94 symbols, a password length of 20 characters, and a 50% probability of success compared to the theoretical result, our simulation yielded an astonishing result: 766.076,000,000,000,000 years or 766 trillion [5] years.

Understanding the Financial Implications

This simulation approach not only provides insights into the time required but also sheds light on the financial investments necessary to establish a computer system capable of cracking such a password.

Consider this: The reference computer, as configured by Gosney, relies on a pool of 25 virtual AMD GPUs to crack even robust passwords. Yet, a single unit of this type, priced at approximately $30,000 in 2012, can generate just 348 billion hashes of NTLM passwords per second. To achieve results within the realm of 766 trillion years, one would need to acquire multiple such machines.

Hence, to decipher only a 20-character password generated with EviPass technology, residing within an EviTag NFC HSM or EviCard NFC HSM device, an investment of nearly $25 billion would be required. A remarkable comparison, given that global military expenses were estimated at 1.7 billion dollars [6].

Beyond Brute Force

It’s important to note that this test focused solely on brute force attacks without taking into account the activation and utilization of additional countermeasures, such as physical blockchain and jamming, which will be explored in future articles.

A Point of Reference: ANSSI’s Simulator

To provide further context, we examined the ANSSI website [7], whose simulator is limited to 20 characters and 90 symbols. This simulator yielded a score of 130, the maximum attainable. This score places passwords of this nature on par with the smallest key size of the standard AES (128-bit) encryption algorithm. Notably, our password generators exceed this maximum, boasting 20 characters with 94 symbols [8].

Forming Your Own Opinion

The aim of this article is to empower you to form your own assessment of the resilience of our password generators against brute force attacks. While we are not the sole providers of powerful password generators, our test stands as a benchmark against other comparable implementations.

Ensuring Ongoing Security

Our embedded password generator undergoes regular updates to maintain its complexity and withstand the evolving landscape of brute force attacks. Our commitment is to enhance security without compromising user convenience—a complex yet vital undertaking.

Diverse Password Generation Options

Our password creation options offer versatility. Users can either select passwords from the pool of 95 available characters, opt for a semi-automatic generation followed by modification, or automate the process entirely according to default criteria, allowing passwords of up to 20 characters.

Adaptability to Website Constraints

For websites that impose restrictions on symbols or character limits, users can customize their password generation preferences, choosing between identifiers, letters, and/or numbers, with or without symbols.

Hexadecimal Generator for Added Utility

We’ve also introduced a hexadecimal generator to facilitate programming of digital codes. This feature proves invaluable in various domains, including electronics, electromechanics, and maintenance services, enabling the creation and modification of digital access codes with ease. Furthermore, codes can be securely shared with building residents through functions like “scrambling” or encryption via a QR Code, all made possible by EviCore technologies from Freemindtronic.

To learn more about our solutions, please visit:

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National Publication | Diari d’Andorra | Thursday, May 3, 2018 | AN ANDORRAN STARTUP’S INITIATIVE | By Joan López i Soler | Credit Card Security

A Cybersecurity System to End Credit Card Fraud

FULLSECURE, an Andorran startup, now offers a new security service for all credit card types. Consequently, it aims to prevent online sales database theft; moreover, it ends the fraudulent use of card security codes. Therefore, it significantly enhances security for online transactions made with credit cards. The company asserts, “This innovative service allows users to avoid storing credit card information in online sales databases; additionally, it enables the physical elimination of the credit card’s security cryptogram.” Utilizing a plugin powered by weak artificial intelligence, users can securely conduct Internet purchases. Furthermore, the startup highlights that this service “also eradicates the risk of illegal physical use after loss, theft, or duplication during international travel.”

Since April 24, 2018, the system has been available to users who possess specific cybersecurity devices, such as Evicard NFC HSM, Evitag NFC HSM, and EviPass NFC HSM password managers, for online shopping. The system’s inventor, Jacques Gascuel, emphasized the goal “to revolutionize credit card security and their Internet usage, thus halting fraudulent use.” On May 29, they will unveil prototypes at a cybersecurity event in Toulouse.

Fullsecure, specializing in electronic cybersecurity services, is a dynamic company founded in Ariège in 2010, now expanding its operations in the Principality.

Update | May 30, 2024

Advancements in Security Credit Card

Since the initial launch of their credit card security service, Fullsecure has continued to innovate with EviPay NFC HSM technology to secure credit cards and cryptocurrencies. This cutting-edge technology provides robust protection against fraud, securing credit card information and mnemonic phrases along with their derived private cryptocurrency wallet keys without the need for sensitive data storage on online sales sites, including crypto assets.

FULLSECURE remains at the forefront of combating credit card fraud, offering solutions that not only meet but exceed current security standards, showcasing their commitment to consumer protection and trust.

As the digital landscape advances, FULLSECURE pledges to maintain its position as a leader in innovation, delivering the most secure and groundbreaking cybersecurity solutions to users.

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