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The first wood transistor for green electronics

Wood transistor by Jacques gascuel This article will be updated with any new information on the topic, and readers are encouraged to leave comments or contact the author with any suggestions or additions.  

The first wood transistor for green electronics

Wood is a natural and renewable material that can be used for many purposes, from construction to furniture. But did you know that wood can also be used to make electronic devices? In this article, we will introduce you to the first wood transistor ever created, and explain how it works and why it is a promising innovation for green electronics.

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What is a wood transistor?

A transistor is a device that can amplify or switch electrical signals. Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronics, such as computers, smartphones, and sensors. They are usually made of silicon, a semiconductor material that can conduct electricity under certain conditions.

However, a wood transistor is a type of transistor that uses wood as the base material instead of silicon. Wood is also a semiconductor, but with different properties than silicon. To make wood transistors, researchers coat thin slices of wood with carbon nanotubes. These are tiny tubes of carbon atoms that have excellent electrical and mechanical properties.

The carbon nanotubes act as electrodes, which are the parts of the transistor that connect to the external circuit. The wood acts as the channel, which is the part of the transistor that controls the flow of current between the electrodes.

How does a wood transistor work?

A wood transistor works by applying a voltage to one of the electrodes, called the gate. This voltage creates an electric field that affects the conductivity of the wood channel. By changing the gate voltage, the current flowing between the other two electrodes, called the source and the drain, can be modulated.

The wood transistor can operate in two modes: depletion mode and enhancement mode. In depletion mode, the wood channel is normally conductive, and the gate voltage can reduce or stop the current flow. In enhancement mode, the wood channel is normally non-conductive, and the gate voltage can increase or start the current flow.

The researchers who developed the wood transistor made an interesting discovery. They found that it can switch between depletion mode and enhancement mode by changing the polarity of the gate voltage. This means that the wood transistor can perform both n-type and p-type functions, which are essential for creating complex electronic circuits.

Why is a wood transistor important?

A wood transistor is important because it offers several advantages over conventional silicon transistors. Some of these advantages are:

  • Wood is abundant, cheap, biodegradable, and renewable, which makes it an environmentally friendly alternative to silicon. Silicon is scarce, expensive, non-biodegradable, and requires high-energy processing.
  • Wood transistors have a low operating voltage, which means they consume less power and generate less heat than silicon transistors. This can improve the energy efficiency and performance of electronic devices.
  • Wood transistors have a high sensitivity to humidity and temperature changes, which makes them suitable for applications such as environmental sensors and smart textiles.
  • Moreover, wood transistors have a flexible and transparent structure, which makes them compatible with flexible and wearable electronics.

What are the challenges and opportunities for wood transistors?

Researchers are still developing wood transistors, and they face some challenges and opportunities for further improvement. Some of these are:

  • The stability and reliability of wood transistors need to be enhanced by optimizing the fabrication process and protecting them from moisture and oxidation.
  • The scalability and integration of wood transistors need to be improved by developing methods to produce large-area and high-density arrays of wood transistors on various substrates.
  • The functionality and diversity of wood transistors need to be expanded by exploring different types of wood materials and carbon nanotube coatings with different properties.
  • The applications and markets for wood transistors need to be explored by collaborating with industry partners and end-users who can benefit from this novel technology.


Wood transistors are a breakthrough innovation that can revolutionize green electronics. They combine the natural advantages of wood with the exceptional properties of carbon nanotubes to create low-power, high-performance, flexible, transparent, and biodegradable electronic devices.


Li, T., Zhu, H., Wang, X. et al. Wood-based fully biodegradable and flexible electronic devices. Nat Electron 4, 33–40 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-00518-9

[1] A transistor made of wood: Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor – https://www.pnas.org/content/118/17/e2026873118

Hardware secrets manager Eco-friendly

Hardware Secrets Manager, Eco-friendly, NFC devices, works contactless from Freemindtronic is sustainable technology respects the environment design & product made in Andorra

hardware secrets manager eco-friendly goes beyond secret keeper contactless.

hardware secrets manager eco-friendly in our Cybersecurity innovations is much more than a commitment. It’s a reality ! Extreme lifespan, Cloud-free, maintenance-free and infinitely transferable products for the secondary market.

From the birth of this idea, the innovation that uses industrial NFC has integrated sustainable development.

How can we integrate ecology process into our innovations, at our start-up scale, make ecology a reality and design our products and services taking into account the circular production and consumption model to compensate to the problems linked to linear consumption (extract, produce, consume, throw away) which is undoubtedly at the origin of strong environmental impacts (use of resources, greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and more or less waste production dangerous)?
Our desire is to extend the lifespan of products and services as much as possible as part of a united ecological approach aimed at reducing, or even extinguishing, our environmental impact. The inventor Jacques Gascuel, the designer of our products and services, integrates from the birth of a new idea the eco friendly parameters in our innovations including their uses and their industrialization in a virtuous cycle of sustainable development. Thus, until they are put on the market, the solutions that we develop go far beyond the criteria laid down by the laws of the energy transition. These same laws that frame green growth with the aim of improving product design, by sanctioning planned obsolescence, that is to say deliberately designing a product so that its lifespan is reduced.

Eco friendly process with the extreme lifespan of our products and services

More than a will, a reality in sustainable development: we design devices with a lifespan of several tens of years.
As early as 2007, when he applied for his first patent, the ecological aspect was integrated into Jacques Gascuel’s inventions. In 2010, in Geneva, he received the silver medal for world invention for his safety system for electrical devices equipped with a black box. This same technology is embedded in EVIKEY NFC and EVIDISK NFC products in order to fight against planned obsolescence and protect electronic systems from electrical and / or environmental hazards. It is a black box which not only traces the life of the product and its uses, but which is also capable of identifying the origin of a malfunction to carry out material proof and establish legal responsibilities.
The strength of sustainable development also applies to the latest inventions of the inventor Jacques Gascuel. EviCard, Evitag, EviVault, EviToken et EviCypher technologies have an extreme lifespan, estimated at more than 40 years.
In addition, extending the lifespan of our manufactured products is one of the levers that significantly reduce environmental impacts. This contributes to waste prevention, as part of a transition to a circular economy, but not only.

Our participation in the other aspect of ecology is energy saving

Our solutions go even further in terms of energy saving since our devices produce their own electrical energy to operate and have no battery (positive energy aspect). This has a double advantage: a saving of electrical energy and the absence of recycling of waste by the absence of a cell or battery whose lifespan is limited between 3 and 5 years.
In the same dynamic, our products and services do not use an internet connection or a remote server to host and use your data (identifiers, passwords, bank cards, encryption keys and access codes). They are recorded in real time dynamically in a programmable memory. Our products work with the auto micro energy produced via the signal from the NFC antenna of the terminal (smartphone). In fact, we have almost no impact on the power consumption, nor on the water and / or derived products, used for cooling servers (Cloud).

How do we participate in reducing waste in our Cybersecurity innovations from their conception?

In terms of waste, we are maximizing our development by using active and passive silicon-based components whose lifespan is not yet known. We mainly use components mass produced by the European group STMicroelectronics. This makes it possible to reduce on the one hand the risk linked to the obsolescence of the components, to favor the European economy, and to use components already mass produced and already proven like smartphones, bank cards or industry . In addition, our products such as Rugged NFC EviVault, EviPro, EviPlus, EviLite, EviOne, EviKey, EviDisk, are hardened to the extreme, and are able to withstand mechanical stresses of several tons, erosion, water, air, dust, brute force attacks, which considerably increases the lifespan of silicon components and therefore the on-board system designed to operate for several decades. In the field of service, our protection systems against brute force attacks are designed to restore our products to their factory configuration, of course after irreversibly erasing all the data stored in memory. This factory reset allows the product to be reused. Only one condition, however, that the owner has in his possession the unique pairing key associated with the product.

Making eco friendly innovations means to plan it from conception to industrialization

We also take ecology into account in the manufacturing process of our products. This means design products with the least possible impact on the environment; this is the principle of eco-design seen by the inventor. He sets goals, in the form of challenges, which require creativity. How do you make cybersecurity products as light and robust as possible, resilient in the extreme? How to achieve “zero defects”, to be adaptable and to be compatible between products and services, to anticipate and take into account technological developments with a long-term vision on the various uses? How do you get products that are extremely easy to maintain and up to “maintenance free”? How to favor, from the design, the manufacturing aspect to use recycled or easily recyclable materials?

Our eco friendly bring real values for our consumers due to  sustainable development

  • Products that work without any maintenance, are upgradeable for free, contribute to energy saving, with an extreme lifespan.
  • Products that can be given, sold, loaned or rented, in compliance with normal conditions of use. Designed not to break down, but nevertheless replaced free of charge for at least five years in the event of a manufacturing defect, since in principle no one is required.
  • The on-board security and safety system against brute force attacks and the possibility of formatting allow the product to be returned to factory configuration, which gives our solutions a second life, or even several other lives.
  • User guides available in video with subtitles on youtube EviToken Technology.
  • No batteries to change, no need to recharge, no maintenance, very easy to use, extreme hardened versions capable of operating in a deadly environment for humans.
  • An on-board black box which tracks the entire life of the product and in particular electronic, thermal, electrical or environmental anomalies
  • Cybersecurity solutions that can be used simply, on a daily basis, which respect the environment of the planet, the private and professional life of their user; this is our commitment eco-responsible

Our hardware secrets manager eco-friendly complies with laws, European and international directives

By the simple fact of the design of our products and services, they are already in compliance with the latest European Parliament Resolution of July 4, 2017 about a longer lifespan of products: benefits for consumers and businesses (2016/2272(INI)).

In the same way, we are also in compliance with French law n° 2015-992 of August 17, 2015 relating to the energy transition for green growth which strengthens the fight against planned obsolescence and promotes the extension of the duration of use of products through consumer information.Click here to know more about  the product life as mentioned by Europe since July 4th 2017